How to Speak American

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Check out a post from our very own Good Guy, Mitch, at www.publiclydelivered.com, and while you’re there, tell our buddy Aaron Burk just how cool his latest creation is.

dialectsus

 

Check out the following post from mentalfloss.com that describes exactly why the American dialect is truest form of the English language:

There are manymany evolving regional British and American accents, so the terms “British accent” and “American accent” are gross oversimplifications. What a lot of Americans think of as the typical “British accent” is what’s called standardized Received Pronunciation (RP), also known as Public School English or BBC English. What most people think of as an “American accent,” or most Americans think of as “no accent,” is the General American (GenAm) accent, sometimes called a “newscaster accent” or “Network English.” Because this is a blog post and not a book, we’ll focus on these two general sounds for now and leave the regional accents for another time.

English colonists established their first permanent settlement in the New World at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, sounding very much like their countrymen back home. By the time we had recordings of both Americans and Brits some three centuries later (the first audio recording of a human voice was made in 1860), the sounds of English as spoken in the Old World and New World were very different. We’re looking at a silent gap of some 300 years, so we can’t say exactly when Americans first started to sound noticeably different from the British.

As for the “why,” though, one big factor in the divergence of the accents is rhotacism. The General American accent is rhotic and speakers pronounce the in words such as hard. The BBC-type British accent is non-rhotic, and speakers don’t pronounce the r, leaving hard sounding more like hahd. Before and during the American Revolution, the English, both in England and in the colonies, mostly spoke with a rhotic accent. We don’t know much more about said accent, though. Various claims about the accents of the Appalachian Mountains, the Outer Banks, the Tidewater region and Virginia’s Tangier Island sounding like an uncorrupted Elizabethan-era English accent have been busted as myths by linguists.

TALK THIS WAY

Around the turn of the 18th 19th century, not long after the revolution, non-rhotic speech took off in southern England, especially among the upper and upper-middle classes. It was a signifier of class and status. This posh accent was standardized as Received Pronunciation and taught widely by pronunciation tutors to people who wanted to learn to speak fashionably. Because the Received Pronunciation accent was regionally “neutral” and easy to understand, it spread across England and the empire through the armed forces, the civil service and, later, the BBC.

Across the pond, many former colonists also adopted and imitated Received Pronunciation to show off their status. This happened especially in the port cities that still had close trading ties with England — Boston, Richmond, Charleston, and Savannah. From the Southeastern coast, the RP sound spread through much of the South along with plantation culture and wealth.

After industrialization and the Civil War and well into the 20th century, political and economic power largely passed from the port cities and cotton regions to the manufacturing hubs of the Mid Atlantic and Midwest — New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Chicago, Detroit, etc. The British elite had much less cultural and linguistic influence in these places, which were mostly populated by the Scots-Irish and other settlers from Northern Britain, and rhotic English was still spoken there. As industrialists in these cities became the self-made economic and political elites of the Industrial Era, Received Pronunciation lost its status and fizzled out in the U.S. The prevalent accent in the Rust Belt, though, got dubbed General American and spread across the states just as RP had in Britain.

Of course, with the speed that language changes, a General American accent is now hard to find in much of this region, with New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Chicago developing their own unique accents, and GenAm now considered generally confined to a small section of the Midwest.

As mentioned above, there are regional exceptions to both these general American and British sounds. Some of the accents of southeastern England, plus the accents of Scotland and Ireland, are rhotic. Some areas of the American Southeast, plus Boston, are non-rhotic.

Read the full text here: http://mentalfloss.com/article/29761/when-did-americans-lose-their-british-accents#ixzz2RRa4mF6D
–brought to you by mental_floss!

 

Here’s a list of the various sub-dialects found in America today, from Robert Delaney at www.uta.fi:

General Northern

This is sometimes also refered to as General American and is used in almost two-thirds of the country. It breaks down into the dialect regions below.

Northern New England

Many of the Northern dialects can trace their roots to this dialect, which was spread westward by the New England settlers as they migrated west. It carries a high prestige due to Boston’s early economic and cultural importance and the presence of Harvard University. A famous speaker is Katherine Hepburn. They sometimes call doughnuts cymbalssimballs, andboil cakes.

Eastern New England (1)
This is one of the most distinctive of all the American dialects. R‘s are often dropped, but an extra R is added to words that end with a vowel. A is pronounced AH so that we get “Pahk the cah in Hahvahd yahd” and “Pepperidge Fahm remembuhs.”

Boston Urban (2)
Like many big cities, Boston has its own dialects that are governed more by social factors like class and ethnicity than by geographic location. Greater Boston Area is the most widely spoken and is very similar to Eastern New England.Brahmin is spoken by the upper aristocratic class like Mr. Howell on Gilligan’s Island.

Central City Area This is what most of us think of as being the “Boston Accent.” In the last few years, Saturday Night Livehas featured this dialect among a group of rowdy teenagers who like to videotape themselves. Also think of Cliff onCheers, the only character on this Boston-based show to actually speak a Boston dialect.

Western New England (3)
Less distinctive than Eastern, but more influential on the other Northern dialects.

Hudson Valley (4)
New York was originally a Dutch colony, and that language influenced this dialect’s development. Some original Hudson Valley words are stoop (small porch) and teeter-totter. They call doughnuts (which were invented by the Dutch) crullers andolycooks.

New York City (5)
Unlike Boston and other urban dialects, New York City stands by itself and bears little resemblence to the other dialects in this region. It is also the most disliked and parodied of any American dialect (even among New Yorkers), possibly because many Americans tend dislike large cities. When an R comes after a vowel, it is often dropped. IR becomes OI, but OIbecomes IR, and TH becomes D as in “Dey sell tirlets on doity-doid street” and fugedaboudit (forget about it).

This pronounciation is particularly associated with Brooklyn but exists to some extent throughout the city. The thickness of a speaker’s dialect is directly related to their social class, but these features have been fading within all classes over recent decades. Famous speakers are Rosie Perez, Joe Pesci and Marisa Tomei in My Cousin Vinnie, Archie Bunker, Bugs Bunny, and (if you’re old enough to remember) the Bowery Boys.

Bonac (6)
Named for Accabonac Creek in eastern Long Island, this dialect is rapidly dying out due to the influx of people from other areas. Back when New York City belonged to the Dutch, this area was part of New England, and Bonac shows elements of both dialects.

Inland Northern (7)
Combines elements of Western New England and Upper Midwestern. Marrymerry, and Mary are pronounced the same. They call doughnuts friedcakes.

San Francisco Urban (8)
Unlike the rest of California, which in the early twentieth century saw an influx of people from the South and other parts of the West, San Francisco continued to be settled by people from the Northeast and Northern Midwest, and elements of their dialects (North Midland, Upper Midwestern, Inland Northern) can be found. The Mission dialect, spoken by Irish Catholics in a specific part of the city, is very much like the New York City dialect.

Upper Midwestern (9)
Originally settled by people from New England and New York State who brought those dialects, this area was also influenced by Southerners coming up the Mississippi River as well as the speech patterns of the German and Scandinavian immigrants and the Canadian English dialects from over the border. It’s sometimes referred to as a “Midwestern twang.” They call jelly doughnuts bismarks.

Minnewegian (Minnesota / Norwegian), a subdialect spoken in the northernmost part of this region was spoofed in the movies Fargo and Drop Dead Gorgeous.

Chicago Urban (10)
Influenced by the Midland and Southern dialects. Often spoken by the late John Belushi (Chicago’s Second City comedy theater supplied many Saturday Night Live actors). SNL used to spoof it in the “Da Bears, Da Bulls” sketches. They call any sweet roll doughnuts.

North Midland (11)
Created as the people in Pennsylvania migrated westward and influenced by Scotch-Irish, German, and English Quaker settlers. This and the South Midland dialect can actually be considered a separate Midland Dialect region that serves as a transition zone between the north and south. They call doughnuts belly sinkersdoorknobsdunkers, and fatcakes.

Pennsylvania German-English (12)
This was strongly influenced by Pennsylvania Dutch, a dialect of German spoken by people in this area (in this context, “Dutch” is actually a mispronunciation of the German word, “Deutsch,” which means “German”). Its grammar allows sentences like “Smear your sister with jam on a slice of bread” and “Throw your father out the window his hat.” They call doughnuts fasnacht, and they also invented dunking – from the German “dunken” (to dip).

Western

Compared with the Eastern United States, the Western regions were settled too recently for very distinctive dialects to have time to develop or to be studied in detail. Many words originally came from Spanish, cowboy jargon, and even some from the languages of the Native Americans: adobe, beer bust, belly up, boneyard, bronco, buckaroo, bunkhouse, cahoots, corral, greenhorn, hightail, hoosegow, lasso, mustang, maverick, roundup, wingding.

Rocky Mountain (13)
Originally developed from the North Midland and Northern dialects, but was then influenced by the Mormon settlers in Utah and English coal miners who settled in Wyoming. Some words that came from this dialect are kick off (to die), cache(hiding place), and bushed (tired). They also call jelly doughnuts bismarks.

Pacific Northwest (14)
Influenced by settlers from the Midwest and New England as well as immigrants from England, Germany, Scandinavia, and Canada. Much earlier, a pidgin called

Chinook Jargon was developed between the languages of the Native American tribes of this area. It would later also be used and influenced by the European settlers who wished to communicate with them. A few words from Chinook Jargon like high muckamuck (important person) are still used in this dialect today. (Note that, in this case, the word “jargon” has a different meaning from the one discussed above)

Alaska (not shown)
Developed out of the Northern, Midland, and Western dialects. Also influenced by the native languages of the Alutes, Innuit, and Chinook Jargon. Some words that originated here are: bush (remote area), cabin fever, mush (to travel by dog sled), parka, stateside.

Pacific Southwest (15)
The first English speakers arrived here from New York, Ohio, Missouri, New England, and other parts of the Northeast and Midwest in the 1840s, bringing the Northern and North Midland dialects with them. Words originally used by the gold miners of this period are still used today: pay dirt (valuable discovery), pan out (to succeed), and goner (doomed person).

The early twentieth century saw an influx of people from the South and other parts of the West. The people here are particularly fond of creating new slang and expressions, and, since Hollywood is located here, these quickly get spread to the rest of the country and the world.

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, an extreme exaggeration of this dialect that came to be known as “Valley Girl” or “Surfer Dude” was popular among teenagers and much parodied in the media with phrases like “gag me with a spoon” and“barf me back to the stone age.” Sean Penn in Fast Times at Ridgemont High and Whoopie Goldberg in her one-woman show are two famous examples.

Southwestern (16)
By the time this area became part of the United States, there had already been as many as ten generations of Spanish speaking people living here, so the Mexican dialect of Spanish had an important influence on this area that became a melting pot for dialects from all over the USA. Some local words are: caballero, cantina, frijoles, madre, mesa, nana, padre, patio, plaza, ramada, tortilla.

Hawaii (not shown)
The original language of the Native Hawaiians is part of the Polynesian family. English speakers arrived in 1778, but many other settlers also came from China, Portugal, Japan, Korea, Spain, and the Philippines to influence the modern dialect.Hawaiian Creole developed from a pidgin English spoken on the sugar plantations with workers from Hawaii and many other countries. Some words are: look-see, no can, number one (the best), plenty (very). It isn’t widely spoken anymore.

Nonstandard Hawaiian English developed from Hawaiian Creole and is spoken mostly by teenagers. Standard Hawaiian English is part of the Western dialect family but shows less influence from the early New England dialect than any other American dialect. It has many words borowed from the original Hawaiian as well as some from the other Asian languages mentioned above: aloha, hula, kahuna, lei, luau, muumuu, poi, ukulele.

General Southern

This dialect region matches the borders of the Confederate states that seceded during the “Confederate War” and is still a culturally distinct region of the United States. Since it was largely an agricultural area, people tended to move around less than they did in the north, and as a result, the subdialects are much less uniform than those of the General Northern regions and have much more clearly defined boundaries. Other languages that had an important influence on it are French (since the western region was originally French territory) and the African languages spoken by the people brought over as slaves.

People tend to speak slower here than in the north creating the famous southern “drawl.” I is pronounced AH, and OO is pronounced YOO, as in “Ah’m dyoo home at fahv o’clock.” An OW in words like loud is pronounced with a slided double sound AOO (combining the vowel sounds in “hat” and “boot”). Some local words are: boogermanfunky (bad smelling),jump the broomstick (get married), kinfolksmammymuleheadedoverseertotey’all.

South Midland (17)
This area, dominated by the Appalachian Mountains and the Ozark Mountains, was originally settled by the Pennsylvania Dutch moving south from the North Midland areas and the Scotch-Irish moving west from Virginia. A TH at the end of words or syllables is sometimes pronounced F, and the word ARE is often left out of sentences as they are in Black English. An A is usually placed at the beginning of verb that ends with ING, and the G is dropped; an O at the end of a word becomes ER. (“They a-celebratin’ his birfday by a-goin’ to see ‘Old Yeller’ in the theatah”).

T is frequently added to words that end with an S sound. Some words are: bodaciousheapright smart (large amount),set a spell, and smidgin. American English has retained more elements of the Elizabethan English spoken in the time of Shakespeare than modern British English has, and this region has retained the most. Some Elizabethan words that are extinct in England are: bubcross-purposesfall (autumn), flapjackgreenhornguess (suppose), homelyhomespun,jeansloopholemolassespeekragamuffinreckonsorry (inferior), trashwell (healthy).

Ozark (18)
Made famous by the Beverly Hillbillies, this isolated area was settled by people from the southern Appalachian region and developed a particularly colorful manner of speaking.

Southern Appalachian (19)
It is a popular myth that there are a few remote regions here that still speak an unchanged form of Elizabethan English, but they aren’t true. Linguists are still studying the specific differences with South Midland.

Southern

As the northern dialects were originally dominated by Boston, the southern dialects were heavily influenced by Charleston, Richmond, and Savannah. They tend to drop Rs the way New Englanders do, but they don’t add extra Rs. Some words are:big daddy (grandfather), big mamma (grandmother), Confederate War (Civil War), cooter (turtle), fixing to (going to), goober(peanut), hey (hello), mouth harp (harmonica), on account of (because).

Virginia Piedmont (20)
When an R comes after a vowel, it becomes UH, and AW becomes the slided sound, AH-AW. Thus, four dogs becomesfo-uh dahawgs. Some local words are: hoppergrass (grasshopper), old-field colt (illegitimate child), school breaks up(school lets out), weskit (vest).

Coastal Southern (21)
Very closely resembles Virginia Piedmont but has preserved more elements from the colonial era dialect than any other region of the United States outside Eastern New England. Some local words are: catty-corner (diagonal), dope (soda, Coca-Cola), fussbox (fussy person), kernal (pit), savannah (grassland), Sunday child (illegitimate child). They call doughnutscookies.

Gullah (22)
Sometimes called Geechee, this creole language is spoken by some African Americans on the coastal areas and coastal islands of Georgia and South Carolina and was featured in the novel on which the musical, Porgy and Bess, was based. It combines English with several West African languages: Mende, Yoruba, Wolof, Kongo, Twi, Vai, Temne, Ibo, Ewe, Fula, Umbundu, Hausa, Bambara, Fante, and more. The name comes either from the Gola tribe in Liberia or the Ngola tribe in Angola. The grammar and pronunciation are too complicated to go into here, but some words are: bad mouth (curse), guba(peanut – from which we get the English word goober), gumbo (okra), juju (magic), juke (disorderly, wicked), peruse (to walk leisurely), samba (to dance), yam (sweet potato).

Gulf Southern (23)
This area was settled by English speakers moving west from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolinas, as well as French speaking settlers spreading out from Louisiana, especially the Acadians (see “Cajuns” below). Some words are: armoire(wardrobe), bayou (small stream), bisque (rich soup), civit cat (skunk), flitters (pancakes), gallery (porch), hydrant (faucet),neutral ground (median strip), pecan patty (praline).

Louisiana (24)
There’s a lot going on down here. Many people in southern Louisiana will speak two or three of the dialects below.

Cajun French (the Cajuns were originally French settlers in Acadia, Canada – now called Nova Scotia – who were kicked out when the British took over; in 1765, they arrived in New Orleans which was still French territory) carries the highest prestige of the French dialects here and has preserved a number of elements from the older French of the 1600s. It has also borrowed some words from the Spanish who once controlled this area. There are many local variations of it, but they would all be mutually understandable with each other as well as – with some effort – the standard French in France.

Cajun English borrows vocabulary and grammar from French and gives us the famous pronunciations “un-YON” (onion) and “I ga-RON-tee” as well as the phrase “Let de good times role!”, but movies about cajuns usually get the rest wrong. A famous authentic speaker is humorist Justin Wilson, who had a cooking show on PBS, with his catch phrase, “How y’all are? I’m glad for you to see me.” New Orleans is pronounced with one syllable: “Nawlns.”

There is another dialect of English spoken in New Orleans that is informally, and some would say pejoratively, called Yat(from the greeting, “Where y’at”), that resembles the New York City (particularly Brooklyn) dialect (more info). Provincial French was the upper class dialect of the pre-Cajun French settlers and closely resembles Standard French but isn’t widely spoken anymore since this group no longer exists as a separate social class.

Louisiana French Creole blends French with the languages of the West Africans who were brought here as slaves. It is quite different from both the Louisiana and standard dialects of French but is very similar to the other creoles that developed between African and French on various Caribbean Islands. Married couples may speak Creole to each other, Cajun French with other people, and English to their children.

 


References:

  • Rattray, David, ed. Success With Words: A Guide to the American Language. Prepared in association with Peter Davies.. Pleasantville, NY: Reader’s Digest Association, 1988. (Rattray is the primary source for information in the text. Since the text was intended as an informal overview, page numbers are not cited.)
  • Crystal, David. The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Taggart, Chuck. A Lexicon of New Orleans Terminology and Speech The Gumbo Pages. Accessed May 7, 2001.

Negotiation

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Buying a new house?  Maybe a new car?  How about asking for a raise.  All of these have something in common beyond terrifying a lot of people.  The art of negotiation is an often overlooked skill.  If I could give everyone sage advice on the topic, I would.  Instead, I reached out to my buddy Chris, who deals with negotiations all day every day.  This guy could get you a good deal on most everything.  The nuances are important.  Here are a few of Chris’s main points that we discuss that will help you keep thing in the right perspective:

1.  This is probably the most important idea Chris tried to get across – Every negotiation, in any environment, should try to result in a win-win situation.  Do not try to “beat” your purchaser or seller, an insulting offer from you can quickly turn into an equally insulting counter-offer and the termination of a deal.

2.  Do your research.  This always seems like a no-brainer, but it can’t be stressed enough, and it is important to know WHY you are doing the research.  Doing the research will give you things you can talk about and point out to gain leverage to get a better price.

3.  Have some backup plans.  If you are in love with just one car, or one house, your negotiations could potentially suffer.  Having plan A, B, and C will increase your bargaining power, and allow you more places to concede certain items to obtain the highest number of your must-have items/features overall.

4.  Keep your cool.  Being short with the salesman, or condescending with your buyer is not a way to show strength.  As Chris has learned over many years, a good relationship and a good conversation is better than a good price in a lot of situations.

5.  Know your buyer.  Any information you can gain about the needs of your buyer will help.  Asking “soft” questions to get the ball rolling is a great way to learn what a potential buyer really wants.  If you can determine that he or she hates not getting a real person on the phone, that can be used to your advantage.

6.  Think about the fringe.  In a lot of job/salary negotiations, there are tons of perks that can be hidden behind a dollar figure.  Getting more flexibility to work from home, extra vacation, or having more autonomy are all things that can improve your quality of life as much or more than another could grand.  Think about all of the things other than money, and value them before you talk to your employer.  Be prepared to give things up and gain some others.

7.  Know your goals.  Now that you have all your options lined up, make sure you think hard about which ones are really your favorite.  Have a solid ranking system in place and stick to it.

8.  Think about how you respond to the offer you are putting forward.  If you wouldn’t consider an offer, why should anyone else?

9.  Be prepared to do what you say.  If you threaten to walk, you better be able to.  Don’t “play too hard of ball”.

10.  Read up.  Practice.  Chris gave some good resources in the podcast you should check out.  amanet.org, karrass.com, impressionmanagement.com, kbb.com, daveramsey.com.

 

You can gain a lot of things by negotiating with a cool head, and a lot of options.  There isn’t a magic bullet on how to get a car 50% below sticker, but you can certainly do your part to get closer.  Think about your interactions using some of the above guidelines and you’ll give yourself a good shot at a win-win .