TOR – The Black Market Internet

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OK, maybe “The Black Market Internet” is a bit of a dramatic title.  However, on one level it is very true.  This episode we talk about TOR (The Onion Router).  I stumbled across TOR when I was reading about some of the latest legislation regarding government intervention in our internet lives.  People are scared about losing their privacy.  This is where the TOR network comes in handy.

The TOR network is a complex beast, but luckily it is incredibly simple to install and use.  On the most basic level, TOR is just another web browser that you can use.  It’s like Internet Explorer or Firefox, except nobody can figure out what you do or where you go.  It’s useful for a TON of things from law enforcement to secret communication to basic personal privacy.  I used it earlier to send an email to the Good Guys and believe me, I couldn’t figure out who sent the email.

So whether you just want a bit more privacy so that Facebook or Google aren’t advertising based on your Amazon shopping history, or if you are buying items you could not get in person, TOR may be a cool thing to check out.

Their website is www.torproject.org  where you can download all the necessary software and be up and running in no time.

Cockney Rhyming Slang

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Ello Govna!  With Mitch just returning from a trip to London, the location of the upcoming 2012 Summer Olympics, the good guys take this opportunity to learn about Cockney, or Ryming Slang, a unique facet of the dialectal English from London’s East End.  Also an absentee Chad proposes a Rubix Cube Challenge, Mitch brings in a new Nerd Alert and Perek makes a glorious return to the reddit.com forums with another Today I Learned.  Hang up the dog, get off your Aris, grab a Britney and enjoy the show!  Thanks for listening!

Interested in throwing some Cockney slang into your everyday language?  Check out http://www.cockneyrhymingslang.co.uk/

or, use some of our own personal favorites:

“Stop being an elephant!” = Elephant and castle = A**hole

“Give me a Britney!”  = Britney Spears = Beer

“Let’s go to the near!”  = Near far = Bar

“Can I borrow some bees?”  = Bees and Honey = Money

“Go park the Scooby!” = Scooby Doo = Subaru

 

An example of Cockney Slang from the brilliant movie Green Street Hooligans!  (viewer discretion advised)

Green Street Hooligans

Lie Detection

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Lie Detection

How lie detectors work:
Measure involuntary physiological reactions to emotional stress
– Heart rate variability (stressful situations cause an increase in sympathetic activity “fight or flight”, which increases heart rate variability)
– Skin conductance (small increases in sweat gland activity in the palms and soles is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system.  Increased conductance = increased arousal)
– Blood pressure
– Respiratory rate

Ways to beat a lie detector
– Superficially raise your sympathetic level during the “control” period
– Superficially lower your sympathetic level during the relevant period

Can people really fool a lie detector test?
– Gary Ridgway; American serial killer known as “The Green River Killer”, convicted of 48 separate murders but confessed to nearly double that.  Killed prostitutes in Washington during the 80s/90s.  His first 5 victims were found in the Green River.  He was arrested in 1984, at which point he took and passed a polygraph test.  He was arrested again in 2001, when DNA evidence matched him to the crimes.

– Aldrich Ames; Soviet double agent.  Compromised more CIA assets than any Soviet mole in American history.  Passed 2 polygraph exams in 1986 and 1991.  Apparently, the KGB told him to get a good night’s sleep, relax, and pretend he was good friends with the test administrator.  He was eventually arrested after surveillance evidence accrued.  He compromised over 100 US intelligence operations and his info led to the execution of at least 10 US sources.

– Bill Wegerle failed 2 polygraph tests in Wichita, KS, while under suspicion of killing his wife.  One given by police, one given by an examiner he hired to clear his name.  He was never arrested or convicted, but was largely suspected of, and shunned for, the crime by his community for about 20 years.  Eventually, evidence linked his wife’s death to the BTK killer, a serial killer from the Wichita area, and effectively cleared his name.

How accurate is the polygraph test?
– Very little scientific credibility
– Businesses selling polygraph equipment claim validity of 90-100%, but a survey of over 400 forensic psychologists puts the validity at about 61%.  Still better than chance alone, but given the stakes, it doesn’t seem to be an admissible form of evidence.

– In 2007, polygraph testimony was still admitted in 19 states, but was up to the discretion of the trial judge in federal court.  It is still used extensively by attorneys and law enforcement agencies, including the LAPD.  Most commonly, it is used in post-conviction supervision of sex offenders.

How can a Good Guy To Know use lie detection strategies?

– First off, don’t buy a polygraph.  It’s largely pseudoscience at this point.
– Look for sociological signs of deception:

1) Eye movements

2) Body movements
Timing and duration of emotional gestures are off normal pace.

 

Expressions are often limited to only movements of the mouth when someone is lying, rather than the whole face if they’re telling the truth.

When people touch their face/throat/mouth, it usually is a sign of discomfort

Liars will tend to place objects between themselves and you

3) Speech patterns

Typically, statements with a contraction are more likely to be truthful (I didn’t do it, versus, I did not do it)

Liars will include unnecessary details while recanting their story in an effort to convince you

Be suspicious if someone uses the words “never” or “always”

*Trick*  Try switching the subject quickly.  A liar will often follow you to the new subject, glad to have gotten away with their deception.  Someone who is telling the truth will probably be confused about the subject change, and will want to return to the dispute so that they can effectively clear their name.

Poker Table Lie Detection

Common tells include dilated pupils (in a well-lit room), strong/rapid pulse seen either in the temple or at the carotid, the “prey response” (sitting still/quiet, like a rabbit when a predator is close).

Likewise, people may try to hide their naturally heightened state by engaging in worthless, forced conversation, exaggerating gestures, or trying to move the focus off of them.

Unfortunately, you’re really just trying to detect a stress response, which can occur during a bluff (most commonly), or when someone has a great hand (less common, but devastating to you).

********Disclaimers*********

None of these techniques should be used by themselves.  You’ll get better accuracy if you notice a number of these phenomena occurring simultaneously.  Obviously, these are all dependent on the individual in question, and you’ll be much more likely to catch a lie from someone you know, because you can judge against their baseline.  Also, and most importantly, I make absolutely no claim that the above suggestions have good evidence of their efficacy over time and over a large number of liars.  Use cautiously.

Most of this info was pulled from Wikipedia or websites created for entertainment purposes only.

Crossfit

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So as some listeners may or may not know, I quit my regular gym membership a few months ago and joined CrossfitMSP/MSPFitness. The Crossfit methodology takes a slightly different approach to fitness than typical group classes and so after one of my sessions, I sat down with Michael Pilhofer, the co-founder and head coach, to dig a little deeper into the philosophy and how he has implemented it at his gym.

Crossfit is: “a core strength and conditioning program. We have designed our program to elicit as broad an
adaptational response as possible. CrossFit is not a specialized fitness program but a deliberate attempt to optimize physical competence in each of ten recognized fitness domains. They are Cardiovascular and Respiratory endurance, Stamina, Strength, Flexibility, Power, Speed, Coordination, Agility, Balance, and Accuracy.”

This is a great interview to listen to if you’ve never heard of Crossfit, but perhaps even more valuable if you’ve heard just a little bit about it. Maybe you’ve seen highlights of the Reebok Crossfit Games on ESPN, been to the main website a few times and seen some of the intense workouts that are posted. Michael and I speak a bit about how that creates a perception that the Crossfit methodology and approach to fitness may not be accessible to normal humans like us.

Do you think you could work out with these guys? The winners of the 2011 games?

Probably not… So Michael spends some time outlining the culture and philosophy he has built at MSPFitness, and how the Crossfit tenets above really can be a key part of anyone’s overall wellness/fitness plan. We delve into some of the psychology behind a few of the rituals we do at the gym (like always writing our workout results up on a big whiteboard for everyone to see), and find out how Michael, a successful professional musician and teacher got into this industry.

Thanks once again to Michael for joining me for this podcast, as well as his wife/co-founder, Van, and everyone at MSPFitness for creating such an awesome, positive environment! A way more welcoming and constructive atmosphere than at LA Fitness where they wouldn’t let me use a free pass from the internet to try out Zumba……(Listen to the top of the podcast for more ranting on that…)

Learn more at crossfitmsp.com and crossfit.com

Crazy Wedding History

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Hey everybody. I want to start out by saying a BIG congratulations to Geo for getting engaged since last episode! As all of our astute listeners have probably already discovered, he is the last of the Good Guys to take the plunge, making 3 of the 4 of us now in the midst of planning a wedding. As the only married member of the group – I, Perek – decided to dig up some history on marriage and sought to find the reasons behind some of our most dearly held traditions. It’s not something we think about too much as we fight to grab a bouquet or garter, but it sure will give you some awesome things to talk about when you are sitting at some random wedding table with 7 other people.

Whether these guys decide to continue these traditions is up to them (or probably their SOs). Let us know if you’ve ever seen anything crazier than a kidnapped bride getting her dress ripped off by the wedding guests!

Kony 2012

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In this podcast, the good guys discuss the latest viral internet video “Kony 2012”. Listen and learn to find out who Joseph Kony is, what the Invisible Children organization stands for, and whether or not the Kony 2012 is a good thing. And of course, catch up on the latest antics of our weekly challenges and segments! Thanks for listening!

Watch the Kony 2012 video here!

For more information about this topic, feel free to visit the following websites:
http://www.invisiblechildren.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Kony

 

 

 

 

 

 

Controversial Invisible Children picture
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2113956/Kony-2012-Photo-shows-Invisible-Children-founders-posing-weapons.html

Medical Marijuana

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OK, so here are our magic videos.  Leave a comment and let us know who you think had the best tricks! A special apology to Mitch, the video didn’t switch for the first bit of his trick. You can see him in the little video on the bottom though.

Medical Marijuana content is below the videos.

 


 


 

History:
Marijuana has been in use medically, ritualistically, and recreationally for at least 5000 years.  The first reference to medical marijuana is thought to have been an ancient pharmacopoeia used by Chinese emperor Shen-Nung in 2700 B.C.  This ancient text, which is considered to be the world’s oldest pharmacopoeia, recommends marijuana for more than 100 ailments, including gout, rheumatism, malaria, and absentmindedness, and sits among other common herbal remedies such as ginseng and ephedra.  Interestingly, it was originally used as a tea; smoking marijuana has been a relatively recent form of ingestion of the drug.  From east Asia, marijuana moved west to Persia, Syria, Egypt, Greece, and Italy between 2000 and 1500 B.C.  Here, it began to be used not only for its physiologic properties, but also in the form of hemp for clothing, rope, and paper.  Many sources actually suggest that the Declaration of Independence was written on hemp-based paper!In 1854, marijuana was included in the US dispensary for the first time.  Many of the doctors we imagine as making “house calls” carried marijuana extracts in their black bags.  The drug was especially useful for insomnia, headaches, and anorexia, though it was commonly prescribed for pain, whooping cough, asthma, and sexual dysfunction.  Fast-forward to 1999, and you’ll find a report from the institute of medicine which summarized existing peer-reviewed literature, and found that there was at least some benefit in smoking marijuana for stimulating appetite, especially in AIDS-related wasting syndrome.  It also was found to be helpful for nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy.Throughout the 20th and 21st century, the popularity of marijuana has remained consistent.  Many people smoke marijuana for its mind-altering effects, but others maintain that, despite a lack of good randomized controlled clinical trials proving its efficacy, it is an excellent “organic” alternative to many of the drugs synthesized in laboratories.

Vocab:
Cannabis =
comes from the latin name for the common marijuana plant, of which there are 3 species; Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis.  C. sativa is the most commonly cultivated species in the US.Cannabinoids = chemical compounds that activate receptors in the brain and in the immune system, causing euphoria, decreased pain sensation, and reducing inflammation.  There are 3 major types of cannabinoids: 1) endocannabinoids, which are produced naturally in human tissue.  2) phytocannabinoids, which are produced by plants.  3) synthetic cannabinoids, which are produced in a laboratory.  

THC = short for tetrahydrocannabinol, one of the main phytocannabinoids responsible for feelings of euphoria

Cannabidiol = the second of the two main phytocannabinoids – maximizes euphoria and minimizes anxiety

Recreational Use Today:
Marijuana is the most widely-used illicit drug in the world.  UN estimates report that at least 190 million people consumed the drug in 2007.  Most people smoke marijuana for a few reasons.  First, the drug is much more predictable this way.  The drug is absorbed very consistently through the lungs, especially when compared to the stomach.  As such, it allows for more effective titration of the drug to reach a desired effect.  Most people experience a mild euphoria, relaxation, and perceptual alterations (time distortion, intensification of ordinary experiences).  Unfortunately, some users react to the drug with anxiety and paranoia, whether they are using the drug recreationally or medically.  It is thought that unfamiliar situations can predispose to these negative effects.  The concentration of THC and Cannabidiol in marijuana does make a difference in the sensations a user can experience.  Greater levels of THC can cause a more potent euphoria, but may also cause a greater degree of anxiety and paranoia.  It is thought that an increase in cannabidiol is beneficial in two ways; it increases the euphoric effects of THC, and decreases the anxiety and paranoia.  As such, preparations with a large cannabidiol to THC ratio are the most sought-after.  

Medical Use Today:
So far, only 4 pharmaceutical cannabinoids have been marketed.  2 of these have been available in the US since 1985 (dronabinol and nabilone), the other two are available in Canada and Europe, but have not been approved for use in the US.  Both of the US drugs are used for appetite stimulation and anti-nausea effects, especially in chemotherapy and AIDS patients.  They’re administered in pill form, which is easier to market and sell, but, as mentioned earlier, makes them more difficult to administer safely.  Their variable absorption results in a tiny therapeutic window (the amount of drug that gives a benefit without causing adverse effects).  It begs the question: Why should we prescribe these pills over the inhaled form of THC?  Of course, there is a risk of medical side-effects when inhaling marijuana smoke.  Much research has been conducted on the effects of cigarette smoke on lungs, and they have shown greatly increased risk of cancers, COPD, asthma, and overall decreased lung function.  However, most cigarette smokers inhale 8-10 cigarettes per day.  Most marijuana users smoke a considerably smaller amount of marijuana.  One recent study found that marijuana smokers with fewer than 7 “joint years” (equivalent of one joint per day for one year) had no deleterious effects on their lung function, while those with greater than 10 joint years had at least some increased risk for COPD, asthma, and persistent pneumonias.  Unfortunately, it has been difficult to give marijuana the amount of research that it probably deserves.

Where’s the Research?
The story of the illegalization of marijuana in America goes back to the 1930s.  In 1936, the movie “Reefer Madness” portrayed marijuana as a substance that induced insanity and anarchy.  In 1937, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics passed the Marijuana Tax Act (despite objections from the American Medical Association), which taxed medical cannabis at $1 per ounce and recreational marijuana at $100 per ounce.  Some researchers suggest that this movement started with law enforcement officers in the southwest, who associated marijuana with stereotypes of low-income Mexicans and migrant workers, who they thought were instigators of crimes and social decline in the area.  In 1942, it was removed from the US dispensatory due largely to the economic costs imposed by the Marijuana Tax Act.  In 1970, the US Congress declared marijuana to have no medical value – bypassing many of it’s own review processes, and made it illegal, despite a lack of scientific testimony and evaluation.  Marijuana was subsequently classified as a Schedule 1 drug, meaning that it had no medical benefit and had a high abuse potential (other drugs in this category include heroine and LSD).  As such, researchers have had to jump through hoops in order to study the drug’s effects.  In fact, the only federally authorized source of cannabis is a strain from the University of Mississippi.  Researches can only access this strain by applying to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, an organization which has historically been very much aligned with opponents of marijuana use.

Currently, 16 states plus the District of Columbia allow legal use of marijuana with very strict restrictions, despite a federal stance that marijuana is an illicit substance.  This means that people living in these states can simultaneously be following state laws and breaking federal laws.  The American Medical Association, the Institute of Medicine, and the American College of Physicians maintain a stance that the “current patchwork of state laws do little to establish clinical standards for marijuana use,” and continue to push the federal government to re-classify marijuana as a Schedule 2 drug, making it much more accessible to the normal channels of research that are used to scrutinize other drugs.

What do you think?

http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000881

Inspiration for, and large parts of this summary were pulled from a recent Mayo Clinic Proceedings article which you can find here:  http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(11)00021-8/fulltext

Immortality

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So I think exactly a year ago, we did the Paleo challenge that was basically to eat a diet that is more in line with what our human bodies have evolved to eat. So lately I’ve been thinking about the other side of that equation; exercise, and overall health. I’m pretty sure that our bodies weren’t designed to do what I do every day and sit at a desk for 8+ hours, and I’m always skeptical when I hear things like, exercising 20 minutes a day will add 10 years to your life etc.

So I got interested in thinking about life expectancy as it relates to health, and stumbled onto a cool concept called “Compression of morbidity” that I’d like to spend some time exploring today. So before we jump in and start defining this concept, we have a few terms to get our heads around that are important to understand and that I didn’t really have a firm grasp of until I started digging into this research. And I’m going to follow a paper by the guy who coined this term, James Fries, who was a Stanford professor that came up with this concept back in the 70’s.

Life Expectancy
– The average length of life we would expect for an infant born today. This includes absolutely as many deaths as possible statistically speaking so while it’s the one that is most talked about, it’s almost the least valuable for this discussion. It’s just a strict average, so has some of the problems that averages do. For instance, if there is a high infant mortality rate, that’s going to pull the average down.
– To get around some of these problems, we can start talking about life expectancies of humans that are a certain age today? So for instance, an infant born today in the US, has a life expectancy of around 78 years. But the life expectancy for someone who is 70 today, is about 15 more years, or 85. This makes sense right, because if you make it to 75, you’ve ostensibly gotten through a lot of time without having catastrophic accidents, dying from chronic disease, etc.
– So if you look at the history of life expectancy of humans, you see what we already kind of feel, that life expectancies have been going up for thousands of years. The world average in the Paleolithic era was only 33 years, and has now rocketed to 67 in 2010. But, just to emphasize why this isn’t the greatest measure of how this relates to health, in the paleolithic era, if you made it to age 15, you could expect 39 more years to 54, so that kind of cuts out some of that dramatic increase, because things have become a lot safer.

Life Span
– The average longevity in a society without disease or accident. So life expectancy will always be lower than life span, but can approach it as things get safer, medicine gets better, etc.
– Fries spends a good portion of his paper providing arguments for how lifespan hasn’t really changed all that much over the years, and pretty much for humans, hovers right around 85 years. So if you don’t get a chronic disease early, and don’t get in a car accident or die in war, you’re probably going to live to about 85. I’m not going to waste a bunch of time providing his arguments, because I think that’s a pretty easy one to buy.

Maximum Life Potential
– This is the oldest age achieved by any human beings.
– Oldest verified person ever was Jeanne Calment: 122 years, 164 days
– Oldest person alive today: Besse Cooper: 115 Years, 169 days
– The important part about this, is that there really hasn’t been any huge historical change with regards to maximum life potential over the past few centuries. It’s gone up to be sure, but nowhere near the amount that life expectancy has gone up over the years.

So now that we have those terms defined, Fries begins a little to turn to policy, and how we think about age. So much of the time we think about how people are getting older, more people are living longer, etc, and that is true, but if you accept the premise that really it’s futile to try to do things to make people live longer and longer, because really our lifespan has always hovered at around 85, and our maximum potential hasn’t increased all that much either. He makes the argument that it’s pretty much a genetically determined thing for the human body to live to about 85.

So the next piece to look at, and the part that I’m really interested, is that if we only can reasonably plan to live to about 85, what do those last years look like? I’m sure we’ve all been close to someone or known someone who has had some rough years at the end of their life. In and out of hospitals, severely decreased mobility, etc. It’s a pretty painful situation for everyone involved so I think we can all agree that we would want to aggressively avoid this.

This is where Fries introduces the concept of “compression of morbidity” So let’s define morbidity: It is the presence or incidence of a disease or medical condition that causes such a burden to the sufferer that it severely decreases their quality of life.

So it goes without saying that we want that morbidity window to be as short as possible, even zero would be great if we just dropped dead in our sleep right? So there are certain indicators of morbidity that kind of kick off this ‘window of morbidity’: You can probably name them; Pneumonia, Heart Attack, Stroke, Emphysema, Cancer, etc. I would also expand the definition to things like alzheimers, traumatic structural injury like a hip breaking.

It’s depressing, but these morbidity factors are likely going to happen to us and the people we are close to. The longer we live, the greater chance of this stuff happening. So if you take the traditional view, that people are just getting older and older, and life EXPECTANCY is going to continue going up up up, it seems that we are hopelessly destined to spend more and more time in this ‘morbidity window.’
That’s where things get a little more uplifting with what we talked about earlier related to life SPAN. If you buy that no matter what, we probably shouldn’t expect to live much past 85 years old, then we can focus on compressing that morbidity window as much as possible. That is, rather than trying to have long life as a goal, our goal should be super-compressed morbidity. Where we live as long as we can with a good quality of life and then drop dead.

So Fries discussion turns to delaying those factors that indicate morbidity. If we can just delay as long as possible that first morbidity indicator, we can start compressing that morbidity window, hopefully to the point where the first catastrophic thing that happens to us will kill us right there.

So now we have something hopeful to shoot for. We know that behavior changes can affect incidence of a lot of these things. I’m not sure why this idea feels more tangible or attainable to me, but I’ve got kind of a top 5 things to do to compress your own morbidity. You’ve heard all of these before, but I think it’s a valuable exercise to look at them in the light of delaying the onset of morbidity factors as long as possible.

– Eat a healthy diet. You guys know I drink the Paleo-kool aid, but this is one of those no-brainers that has been proven over and over again to help lower the risk of heart disease, stroke, a bunch of other stuff. These are all indicators of morbidity, so instead of thinking, ‘oh, if I eat these vegetables instead of this cake, it’s going to add a couple years to my life,’ think, ‘If I eat these vegetables instead of cake, I’m going to be able to get a few days closer to 85 without having a morbidity event!”
– Cardiovascular Exercise – Again we hear this one over and over, but let’s look at it with a different lens. Remember, we are trying to compress morbidity; that period of our life where our quality of life sucks. When I get old, I want to be able to go for a walk and horse around with my grandkids. I don’t care at all about if I can run a 5K, so my ‘life’ fitness plan doesn’t really need to focus on traditional cardio where I’m trying to keep my heart rate at a certain painful level.
– Weight training – I want to be able to pick something up off the ground, stand up in the shower on my own, and get out of my chair without a struggle. So weight training will make sure that my bones and muscles know what that feels like. Want to focus on full body movements that are FUNCTIONAL, like squats, deadlifts, pullups, etc. Yeah curls can be fun to see your biceps bulge, but that kind of program where you isolate tiny little muscles, isn’t going to do much to compress your morbidity and increase your quality of life later on.
– Don’t smoke or drink too much – Again, another no-brainer because it’s super bad for you in many ways, but for some reason the reason that it’s going to delay morbidity is a more powerful reason for me than simply, “you’ll live longer if you don’t smoke.

Ultimately, I think that the way we look at longevity needs to shift a bit. We shouldn’t be trying to live longer and longer, because data shows that humans aren’t really made to live longer and longer. But we DO want to delay, as long as possible, the indicators of morbidity because that is going to ensure that the time we spend here with a poor quality of life will be minimized as much as possible.

Augmented Reality

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First off, let’s show you the Rube Goldberg vids.  Keep in mind that the rules dictated that the most energy transfers (of different types) would win the challenge.  Also, only ONE human intervention was allowed to start the machine:






Now onto AR.  Augmented reality is awesome.  I dare say that it is BETTER than reality…You can hear how excited I am because I’m giggling. I decided to download (almost) any and every AR app I could get on my iPhone and give a review of all of them for the listeners.  Here is the master list.  * denotes my personal  favorites…

 

Golfscape GPS Rangefinder

Spyglass

Car Finder

Star Chart

Stella Artois

Virtual Snow

*Yelp

*Word Lens

Geo Chaser

DishPointer

*Layar

CVSimulator

***ARBasketball

SnapShop

WikiTude

 

Go get the free ones and try them, trust me.  You won’t really get it until you try it out!!!

 

Bookmaking

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In this podcast the good guys investigate the world of sports gambling and bookmaking.  Bookmakers or bookies are market managers for sports wagering and knowing how to talk like one will definitely set you apart from the crowd the next time you discuss sports gambling!  From terminology to crazy bets to legality, we cover it all!  Now let’s go make some money!!!

Legal gambling in the Unites States:
STATE Charitable Pari-mutuel Lotteries Commercial Indian Racetrack
District of Columbia Yes No Yes No No No
Alabama Yes Yes No No Yes No
Alaska Yes No No No Yes No
Arizona Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Arkansas Yes Yes Yes No No No
California Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Colorado Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Connecticut Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Delaware Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Florida Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Georgia Yes No Yes No No No
Hawaii No No No No No No
Idaho Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Illinois Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Indiana Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Iowa Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Kansas Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Kentucky Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
Louisiana Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Maine Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Maryland Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Massachusetts Yes Yes Yes No No No
Michigan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Minnesota Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Mississippi Yes No No Yes Yes No
Missouri Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Montana Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Nebraska Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Nevada Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
New Hampshire Yes Yes Yes No No No
New Jersey Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
New Mexico Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
New York Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
North Carolina Yes No Yes No Yes No
North Dakota Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Ohio Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Oklahoma Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Oregon Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Pennsylvania Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Rhode Island Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
South Carolina Yes No Yes No No No
South Dakota Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Tennessee No No Yes No No No
Texas Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
Utah No No No No No No
Vermont Yes No Yes No No No
Virginia Yes Yes Yes No No No
Washington Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
West Virginia Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Wisconsin Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Wyoming Yes Yes No No Yes Yes